Traditional Culture

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Information as of 21 Feb, 2017

What is traditional culture?

Traditional Korean culture can be categorized into intangible culture, tangible culture, and living culture. Intangible culture includes folk play, seasonal customs, thought of filial piety, and Korean medicine. Tangible culture includes structures, books, old documents, sculptures, and crafts. Living culture includes food such as doenjang (soybean paste), kimchi, and traditional teas, as well as household goods such as hanbok (Korean traditional clothes), hanji (Korean traditional paper), red clay houses, ceramics, and potteries. 

24 Seasonal Divisions

Korea divides its seasons into 24 seasonal divisions depending on the location of the sun.

24 Seasonal Divisions

 

See Details of 24 Seasonal Divisions
Seasonal divisions Date Content Major seasonal customs
Ipchun Feb 4 or 5 Starting of spring New Year’s dress, ancestral ritual, visit ancestors’ graves, New year’s bow, bokjori (rice strainer that brings blessing), exorcism, jwibullori (burning grass and weeds), fortune telling, neolttwigi (Korean jumping game), yutnori (Korean traditional board game), yeonnalligi (kite flying), eating five grain rice, dalburi (fortune telling), antaekgosa (shamanistic ritual to appease the household god), eating nuts, ear-quickening wine (served on the first full moon day of the lunar new year), selling heat, dragon egg harvesting, not giving food to dogs on the 115th day of lunar January, viewing the first moon, tug-of-war, seokjeon (ritual), bridge walking, stacking up rice straw
Usu Feb  18 or 19 Spring rain and sprouting
Gyeongchip Mar 5 or 6 Frogs awakened from hibernation Yeongdeung Grandmother, unstacking rice straw, festival of servants, stir-frying corns, watching Pleiades
Chunbun Mar 20 or 21 Lengthening of daytime
Cheongmyeong Apr 4 or 5 Preparation of spring farming hansik memorial service, the third day of the third lunar month, making pan-fried sweet rice cake with flower petals, making sauces
Gogu Apr  20 or 21 Farming rain falls
Ipha May 5 or 6 Beginning of summer Buddha’s Birthday , floating lotus lanterns, jwibullori (burning grass and weeds)
Soman May 21 or 22 Beginning of farming
Mangjong Jun 5 or 6 Beginning of sawing sanmaegi dano, dano fans, mugwort tiger, cheonjung talisman, dano adornment, sweet flag, neolttwigi (Korean jumping game), ssireum (Korean wrestling), Dyeing finger nails with garden balsams
Haji Jun 21 or 22 Longest dayttime
Soseo Jul 7 or 8 Beginning of summer heat Yudu Cheonsin (offering the first harvest of the season to gods), sambok, stream fishing
Daeseo Jul  22 or 23 Hottest day
Ipchu Aug  7 or 8 Beginning of fall chilseok gosa (ritual), baekjungnal (the Buddhist All Souls’ Day, mid July by the lunar calendar), baekjung nori, hoe washing, uranbunjae (Buddhist ceremony), duregilssam (farmer’ cooperative work)
Cheoseo Aug  23 or 24 Heat cools off; big day and night difference
Baengno Sep 7 or 8 Dew starts to fall cutting weeds, chuseok ritual, turtoise play, somegi nori, geunchin, Ganggang Sulrae (song and circle dance)
Chubun Sep 23 or 24 Nighttime getting longer
Hallo Oct  8 or 9 Cold dew falls Jungangjeol, Jungang ritual
Sanggang Oct  23 or 24 Appearance of frost
Ipdong Nov  7 or 8 Beginning of winter malnal, sije (ancestral ritual), seongju gosa
Soseol Nov  22 or 23 Ice starts to form
Daeseol Dec  7 or 8 Heavy snow dongji, dongji gosa , Dongji ritual
Dongji Dec  21 or 22 The longest night
Sohan Jan  5 or 6 Coldest days nabil, jeseok, New year’s eve greetings bidding the old year out, narye, Suse
Daehan Jan  20 or 21 Coldest days of winter


Traditional Plays

Traditional Korean plays are mostly based on ancient religion, and they were formed and transmitted through common people’s living. Such traditional plays have local, historical, social, and artistic characteristics.

Yutnori

Yutnori  (Korean board game)

people of all ages play yutnori between January 1st and the 15th day of lunar calendar. People can play this game anywhere if they have yut  sticks, yut board, and yut mal. After throwing the yut sticks, move the yut mal according to the score. People who arrive the last point first win the game.

 

Neolttwigi

Neolttwigi (Korean jumping game)

On the first day of January according to the lunar calendar, women are divided into two teams. They place a bundle of straw underneath a narrow long wooden board. Two women stand on each end of the board, and take turns jumping. If one woman falls from the board due to losing her balance, she loses, and another person takes over. This game can be played individually or in teams. 

 

Jegichagi

Jegichagi (Korean shuttlecock)

Jegi is a shuttlecock that is made by wrapping a coin or a round metal plate with thin, strong paper or cloth, and tearing the paper or cloth into thinner strands. The game of kicking a jegi up in the air with your foot is called jegichagi. There are different ways to play jegichagi: using side of the foot, using both feet, using one foot, and using the top lateral side of the foot. Jegichagi can be played as a one-on-one game or as a group game.

 

Yeonnalligi

Yeonnalligi (Kite flying)

Yeonnalligi is a folk game where a kite is flown in the sky by maneuvering a reel. A traditional Korean kite is made by attaching thin strips of bamboo to paper. There are two kinds of kite flying games: flying the kite high and cutting the kite’s string. Cutting the kite’s string is also called a kite battle. This game uses a special string, which is made by applying a mixture of glue and glass or porcelain powder to the string, to cut off the opponent’s string.

 

Ssireum

Ssireum (Korean wrestling)

Ssireum is a game that requires two contestants. They lock onto each other’s belt and achieve victory by bringing their opponent to the ground. This game used to be a ritualistic event for agricultural Korean society. It was a popular men’s activity on the Korean holiday of Dano, which is the 5th day of the 5th lunar month. The game was played on sand or grass field. 

 

Tuho

Tuho (arrow throwing game)

Tuho is a game of throwing arrows into a bottle, which is placed at a distance from players.
Two contestants or teams throw blue and red arrows into a jar, and the winner is decided by the number of arrows that have been thrown into the jar.
Various types and sizes of bottles were used in the game of tuho, and the sizes of the arrows varied as well. The rule of the game is throwing arrows into a jar. Scores were determined by the number of arrows thrown into the jar. 

 

Ganggang Sullae

Ganggang Sullae (song and circle dance)

Ganggang Sullae is Korea’s representative women’s play that consists of singing and dancing. It is a folk dance and song, which is very beautiful and dynamic.
The dance is usually performed on Chuseok (August 15th on the lunar calendar) and Daeboreum (Jan. 15th on the lunar calendar).
Women dance in a circle, the leader singer sings a line, and the rest of the women sing the refrain Ganggang Sullae.


Traditional clothes

The hanbok, which symbolizes traditional Korean beauty, reflects the style and spirit of things such as ideology, customs, behaviors, form, and skills that have been transmitted since olden times. It consists of a skirt, jeogori (top), baji (pants), durumagi (outer), vest, and magoja (outer coat worn by men).

The skirt and jeogori, which have a splendid and graceful shape that is created by straight and curved lines, are Korea’s unique clothing.

hanbok

hanbok


Traditional musical instruments

Traditional Korean musical instruments are called gugakgi. Representative Korean string instruments include gayageum (twelve-stringed zither), geomungo (six-stringed zither), haegeum (two-stringed zither).  Representative Korean wind instruments, which create a sound by blowing wind through holes that have been bored into metal or bamboo, include Korean flute, daegeum and sogeum. Percussion instruments, which make a sound by striking hands or sticks on an instrument, include janggu and bak.

Gayageum

Gayageum (twelve-stringed zither)

A stringed instrument with twelve strings. The instrument is played via finger movements of plucking or shaking the strings.

Geomungo

Geomungo (six-stringed zither)

Geomungo means a Goguryeo musical instrument. This six-stringed zither was made by applying a Chinese seven-string  instrument.

 

Haegeum

Haegeum (two-stringed zither)

Haegeum is a two-stringed Zither, and it is also called a kkangkkangi or angeum. It is one of the most widely used instruments in Korean music, ranging from court music to folk music.

Daegeum

Daegeum (Korean flute)

The daegeum is Korea’s representative wind instrument. Depending on size, it is classified as a daegeum (large flute), sogeum (small flute), or junggeum (mid-size flute).

 

Janggu

Janggu (double-headed drum)

The janggu is made of two drums that have been attached together. It is played by using a bamboo stick in the right hand and the bare left hand.

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Bak

The bak is an idiophone that is made of several pieces of birch wood with one side bound together with a string. It is made into a fan shape. It makes “ddak” sound as it folds.
Traditional Korean musical instruments are called gugakgi. Representative Korean string instruments include gayageum (twelve-stringed zither), geomungo (six-stringed zither), haegeum (two-stringed zither).  Representative Korean wind instruments, which create a sound by blowing wind through holes that have been bored into metal or bamboo, include Korean flute, daegeum and sogeum. Percussion instruments, which make a sound by striking hands or sticks on an instrument, include janggu and bak.