Significance of Seoul

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Situated at the heart of the Korean Peninsula, Seoul has always been an important strategic point in terms of defense and economy through the centuries, from one kingdom to the next. The three kingdoms of Baekje, Gogyuryeo, and Silla (BCE 57 – CE 688) all fought over the area that is now Korea’s capital. Indeed, whichever kingdom claimed Seoul became the dominant power. The Joseon Dynasty (1396 – 1910) declared Seoul its capital, a role that Seoul still plays to this day.

BC

World History

266 BC
Rome’s unification of the Italian Peninsula
221 BC
Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s unification of China

History

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30,000 BC
Formation of the site in Myeonmok-dong, Seoul
20,000 BC
Formation of the sites in Yeoksam-dong and Garak-dong, Seoul
5000 BC
Formation of the site in Amsa-dong, Seoul
Formation of the site in Garak-dong, Seoul  

1C

World History

79
Pompeii buried by the eruption of Vesuvius
222
Division of the Later Han of China into Wei, Shu, and Wu
476
The fall of West Roman Empire
618
Establishment of the Tang Dynasty in China
751
Spread of China’s paper-making skills to Saracen in the wake of the Battle of Talas

History

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2~3 Century AD
Pungnaptoseong Fortress
3~4 Century AD
Tombs in Seokchon-dong, Seoul Mongchontoseong  Fortress
551
Baekje’s occupation of lower reaches of the Hangang (River)
553
Silla’s occupation of lower reaches of the Hangang (River)
555
Erection of the monument of King Jinheung of Silla in Bukhansan (Mountain)
604
Goguryeo’s attack of Bukhansan Fortress of Silla
614
Silla’s establishment of Bukhansan-ju, referring to the area north of the Hangang (River) newly occupied by it
645

 

Silla’s foundation of Jangeuisa Temple in Hansan-ju (present-day Seoul) to pray for the peace of the spirits of two military commanders killed in action
687
Incorporation of the present-day Seoul area into Hansan-ju
757
The present-day Seoul area renamed Hanyang-gun

10C

World History

1096~1270
Europe engaging in seven major Crusades against Muslim territories in the east
1219~1225
Genghis Khan of Mongolia engaging in expedition against Europe

 

History

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918
The present-day Seoul area named Yangju during the Goryeo period
1067
The present-day Seoul area named Namgyeong
1096
Kim Wi-je’s recommendation of relocation of the capital to Namgyeong
1104
Construction of royal palaces in Namgyeong
1308
Namgyeong was renamed Hanyang-bu in the 5th year of the reign of King Gongmin of Goryeo
1356
Hanyang-bu renamed Namgyeong
1357
Construction of royal palaces and castle walls in Namgyeong in the 6th year of the reign of King Gongmin,
1381
Decision made by King U of Goryeo for relocation of the capital to Hanyang in the 8th year of his reign
1382
King U’s relocation of the capital to Gaegyeong
1387
King U’s attempt to relocate the capital to Hanyang in the 13th year of his reign. Construction of  Jungheungsanseong Fortress

20C

World History

1492
Columbus’ discovery of the New Continent
the 1660s
The Industrial Revolution
1776
American Revolution
1789
French Revolution
1840
The Opium Wars between China and Great Britain
1876
Alexander Bell’s invention of the telephone
1896
The first modern Olympic Games held in Athens
1989
The collapse of the Berlin Wall
1995
Windows 95 marking a significant progression
1949
Establishment of the People’s Republic of China (PRC)
1969
Apollo 11 of the United States landing on the Moon
975
End of the Vietnam War
1911
The Xinhai Revolution in China
1914~1917
World War I
1939~1945
World War II

History

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October 1394
Joseon’s relocation of the capital to Hanyang
1395
Hanyang-bu renamed Hanseong-bu
September 1396
Completion of the work for construction of the castle walls surrounding Hanyang
February 1398
Completion of the work for construction of Sungnyemun Gate
1399
Relocation of the capital from Hanseong to Gaeseong
September 1404
Completion of the work for Gyeongbokgung Palace
October 1405
Relocation of the capital to Hanseong; Construction of Changdeokgung Palace
April 1407
Attachment of names to the five bridges, along with streets, in Hanseong-bu
1412
Construction of stores to be leased to people in Sijeon (a government-operated market)
February 1426
Destruction of houses and 116 stores in Sijeon by a big fire in Hanseong-bu
February 1506
Designation of the boundary of the capital outside the castle
September 1601
Construction of Donggwanwangmyo  (aka Dongmyo) (a shrine for Guan Yu, a 3rd Century Chinese military commander) in Hanseong
November 1619
Destruction of 1,000 houses and Nambyeolgung Palace by a big fire in Hanseong
1620
Repair of Gyeonghigung Palace
1711~1712
Commencement of the work for the construction of Bukhansanseong Fortress
1727
Re-designation of the boundary of the capital outside the castle walls
1759
Commencement of the work for overhaul of streams in Hanseong based on the newly formulated plan; Drawing up of Juncheon Jeolmok (Regulations on Streams)
1773
Reinforcement of stream banks in Hanseong with stones
May 1842
The work of dredging streams in the capital
January 1852
Destruction of the Hanseong-bu building by a fire
April 1864
Destruction of stores between Gwangtonggyo (Bridge and Jonggak by a fire)
April 1865
Commencement of the work for repair of Gyeongbokgung Palace

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1893
The opening of the country’s first clock/watch shop in Gurigae (present-day Euljiro 1-ga)
April 1894
The opening of the country’s first dentist’s in Namdaemun-ro
July 1896
Seoul City’s rearrangement of districts within the city and commencement of the work for improvement of the sewage system
September 1896
Seoul City’s announcement of urban planning between Hwangtohyeon and Heunginmun Gate and between Daegwangtonggyo (Bridge) and Sungnyemun Gate
January 1897
Appearance of the first oil-fueled street lights in Seoul
May 1899
Commencement of operation of a single track streetcar between Seodaemun and Cheongnyangni
April 1899
Seveance Hospital built by an American
April 1900
Hanseong Electric Company’s installation of three street lights on Jongno 3-ga
June 1902
Hanseong Phone Exchange’s commencement of operation (charge member 13 people, Korean 1 people)
June 1904
Installation of public toilets; Prohibition of peeing on street
March 1908
Part of the Seoul castle walls demolished for installation of street tracks
August 1906∼ August 1908
Completion of the work for installation of water supply pipes
October 1909
Commencement of the work for burying gas supply pipes in Jingogae (Ridge)
June 1910
Commencement of the work for stone embankment at the Hangang (River) Wharf (Yongsan-Seogang)
December 1910
Incorporation of Siheung-gun into Yeongdeungpo-gu

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1912
Japanese starting taxi business in Gyeongseong
December 1912
Completion of the work for the double-track of the Hangangcheolgyo (Railroad Bridge)
January 1913
Rearrangement of Gyeongseong land prices and grading
June 1915
Decision made for relocation of Jonggak due to the rearrangement of zones in Gyeongseong
October 1917
Completion of the work for the Hangang Indogyo (Bridge)
December 1919
The opening of public markets in Myeong-dong and Jongno
July 1925
Flooding of Yongsan and Ttukseom
October 1925
The opening of the Gyeongseong Stadium
December 1925
The ceremony for putting up ridge beam carried out for the Gyeongseong-bu Office building (the Seoul City Hall building)
April 1928
Gyeongseong-bu’s commencement of operation of intra-city buses (basic fare: 7 jeon)
April 1929
The opening of Yeouido Airport
January 1930
Completion of the work for the construction of the Gyeonseong Branch (present-day Sinsegye) of Mitsukoshi Department Store of Japan
August 1934~October 1936
Begin the Hangang Indogyo (Bridge) Construction
July 1938
Appearance of goods with price tags for the first time in markets in Gyeongseong
August 1938
Gyeongseong-bu’s decision not to give more business licenses to bars and to restrict the number of hostesses
September 1939
Completion of the work for the construction of Gyeongseong Chojiya Department Store (present-day Midopa)

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1945
Change of the name Gyeongseong to Seoul
August 1948
The number of registered vehicles in Seoul standing at 4,706
March 1949
Awarding of the first Seoul Culture Prize
July 1952
Re-opening of the Hangangcheolgyo (Railroad Bridge) after repair
September 1953
Establishment of the Seoul Intra-City Bus Cooperative
January 1954
Establishment of the Seoul Tax Cooperative
May 1955
Seoul City’s commencement of demolition of unauthorized buildings
May 1958
Re-opening of the Hangang Indogyo (Bridge)

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1958~December 1961
Completion of the work of covering the Cheonggyecheon (Stream) with concrete
December 1961
Construction of Mapo Apartment, the country’s first apartment complex  
January 1962
Seoul Metropolitan Government’s announcement of the Seoul Citizens’ Charter
May 1962
Cable cars appeared in Namsan (Mountain)
1966
Completion of the work for building a pedestrian underpass in Gwanghwamun
January 1966~December 1969
Commencement of the work for the Hanganggyo 1 (Bridge) (present-day Hannamdaegyo(Bridge))
June 1967
The opening of Seun Arcade; The opening of the pedestrian underpass in Taepyeong-ro
August 1967
Completion of the work for the construction of the Cheonggye Overpass
April 1968
Erection of the bronze statue of Admiral Yi Sun-sin in Sejong-ro
November 1968
Stoppage of the operation of street cars in Seoul
March 1969~August 1970
The work for the construction of Namsan Tunnel 1 & 2
April 1970
Collapse of Wau Apartment in Mapo
December 1971
The burning of Daeyeongak Hotel by fire
April 1971~August 1974
The construction of Seoul Subway Line 1
July 1972
The opening of Jamildaegyo (Bridge)
May 1973
The opening of Seoul Children’s Grand Park in Neung-dong
May 1976~May 1978
The work for construction of the Namsan Tunnel  3
April 1978
The opening of Sejong Center for the Performing Arts
September 1979
The opening of Seongsudaegyo (Bridge)

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January 1977~May 1984
The opening of Seoul Grand Park in Gwacheon
March 1978~May 1984
The construction of Seoul Subway Line 2
October 1985
The opening of Seoul Subway Line 3 & 4
May 1986
The opening of 88 Olympic Expressway
October 1986
The commencement of operation of cruise boats on the Hangang (River)
1988
The opening of the country’s first MacDonald’s in Apgujeong-dong
February 1991
The start of the system of “You can’t drive your car every ten days”
October 1994
The collapse of Seongsudaegyo (Bridge)
November 1994
Seoul City’s celebration of the 600th year of setting Seoul as the capital for the Joseon Dynasty and burial of a commemorative time capsule
January 1995
Adoption of the pay-per-bag trash system
February 1995
Adoption of a bus-only lane system
June 1995
The collapse of Sampoong Department Store
May 1990~November 1995
The work for the construction of Seoul Subway Line 5
April 1996
Commencement of the work for Seoul Park in Yeouido Plaza
November 1998
Commencement of the work for Seoul World Cup Stadium in Sangam-dong

21C

World History

March 2000
The first change of the regime in 50 years in Taiwan
December 2000
Election of George Bush of the Republican Party as President of the United States
September 2001
9/11 terror in the United States

History

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August 2000
The opening of Seoul Subway Line 7
September 2000
The holding of the Media City 2000
October 2000
ASEM Meeting
October 2000
The opening of Seoul City Tour Buses
October 2000
The opening of Insadong-gil as part of the plan for formation of paths for visiting historic and cultural sites
October 2000
The holding of the Seoul Drum Festival 2000
December 2000
The opening of Gwanghwamun Gallery in Subway Line 5 Gwanghwamun Station
December 2000
The opening of Seoul Subway Line 6
December 2001
The opening of Seoul World Cup Stadium in Sangam-dong
May 2002
The opening of the Korean-Japan World Cup Games

Seoul, the Gateway to Asia and Europe

The Korean Peninsula lies in the center of Northeast Asia. The coordinates of its capital Seoul are 37.34° N, 126.59° E, a spot slightly nearer to the Yellow Sea. Seoul is within 3 hours’ flying time from 43 cities with a population of over one million people. Korea’s location between China and Japan has been the nation’s geographical advantage.

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Like the rest of Korea, Seoul has four distinct seasons, which means the landscape changes considerably throughout the year. This unique climate is deeply imbedded within Korea’s cultural fabric.

 

봄 

Spring in Seoul

Seoul’s average temperature is 12.2〫C. Spring begins around March, when the entire
city bursts into flower. Many Seoulitesenjoy strolling around Yeouidoor other green spaces
throughout the city
that are filled with a dizzying display of cherry
blossoms, forsythias, azaleas, and magnolias. This is the season when
the temperature drops sharply after nightfall.
Those planning to visit Seoul at this time must remember to pack suitable clothing. A
mask and a pair of sunglasses will keep you from inhaling the yellow dust
that is carried over from China during springtime. The atmosphere can be extremely dry, so take extra care if you have sensitive skin or a sore throat. 


Summer in Seoul

Seoul’s long, hot, and humid summer is only interrupted by sporadic monsoon rains in June and July. If you find Seoul somewhat quiet during this period, that’s because many Koreans go on holiday at this time of year. You will also find people gathered around the water fountain in front of Gwanghwamun Square or under a bridge along the Hangang (River). Banpodaegyo (Bridge) is a popular spot that offers a fantastic view of the city. 

봄 


봄 

Fall in Seoul

Seoul’s pleasant autumn season lasts from September to November. Seoul is filled with bright autumnal colors at this time of year. It is the season of harvest, which is celebrated by showing thanks to the ancestral deities and spirits. It is also the season in which the people prepare for the imminent winter. The Hi! Seoul Festival, one of Seoul’s most notable events, take place in autumn. Changgyeonggung Palace and Gyeongbokgung Palace are open until later hours during this period. It’s worth visiting the city at night to see the hundreds of lanterns hanging above the streets during the Lantern Festival. 


Winter in Seoul

Due to the strong influence from the north, winter is extremely cold in Seoul. This is when squares all over Seoul open skating rinks. The days become markedly shorter, and you will see Seoulites busily going about their business wrapped up against the cold under myriad flashy neon lights. 

 Winter in Seoul 

Seoul’s average temperature and rainfall by month (unit ℃,mm)
Seoul’s average temperature and rainfall by month (unit ℃,mm)
Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Year
Temperature -2.4 0.4 5.7 12.5 17.8 22.2 24.9 25.7 21.2 14.8 7.2 0.4 12.5
Rainfall 20.8 25.0 47.2 64.5 105.9 133.2 394.7 364.2 169.3 51.8 52.5 21.5 1,450.5

 

Seoul’s average temperature and rainfall by month (unit ℃,mm)

The Hangang (River) flows horizontally across Seoul, dividing the city into two sections lying north and south of the river.

There are 25 autonomous districts and 424 administrative ‘dong‘ units in Seoul. The city covers 0.28% of the entire peninsula (or 0.61% of the South Korea territory) and is 30.30km long and 36.78km wide.

서울지역지도

Seoul Districts Area
Districts Area(km2)
Jongno-gu 23.91
Jung-gu 9.96
Yongsan-gu 21.87
Seongdong-gu 16.85
Gwangjin-gu 17.06
Dongdaemun-gu 14.2
Jungnang-gu 18.5
Seongbuk-gu 24.57
Gangbuk-gu 23.6
Dobong-gu 20.7
Nowon-gu 35.44
Eunpyeong-gu 29.69
Seodaemun-gu 17.6
Seoul Districts Area
Districts Area(km2)
Mapo-gu 23.84
Yangcheon-gu 17.41
Gangseo-gu 41.43
Guro-gu 20.12
Geumcheon-gu 13
Yeongdeungpo-gu 24.57
Dongjak-gu 16.35
Gwanak-gu 29.57
Seocho-gu 47
Gangnam-gu 39.51
Songpa-gu 33.88
Gangdong-gu 24.59

 

Seoul has a population of 10,437,737 people. 

2013 (Statistic, http://stat.seoul.go.kr/index.jsp )

10,437,737명

남자 인구 수 5,155,053명,여자 인구 수 5,282,684명

Total Population

2013년 10,437,737명

Local Residents (Korean)

2013년 10,192,057

Foreign Residents

2013년 245,680명