This museum was opened in Sogyeok-dong, Jongno-gu opposite Gyeongbokgung Palace in November 2013. It contains part of the buildings of the Jongchinbu (Office for the Keeping of Royal Pedigrees) (Seoul City Tangible Cultural Heritage No. 96), Gyeongseong Medical School, and the Defense Security Command (Registered Cultural Heritage No. 375).
The red-brick building which serves as the main entrance to the museum used to be the outpatient checkup facility of Gyeongseong Medical School, which was opened in 1928. It was used by the Defense Security Command from 1974 to 2008.
At present, the museum comprises eight exhibition rooms featuring bright sunlit exhibition spaces. The building is regarded as a work of art that embodies the modernism of the 20th century, being stripped of all embellishments, with the focus firmly on function.